Papaya Leaf Ranks Fifth in Southern Nigeria for Treating Fever

One hundred and five indigenous healers in South Nigeria were surveyed to discover what natural herbs were used to heal “febrile” illnesses including “…malaria (78.8%), typhoid (23.1%), yellow fever (21.2%), high fever (19.2 %), convulsion (15.4%), and pregnancy fever (2.9%). Other illnesses treated were yellow eyes (4.8%) headache (11.5%), waist pain (14.4%), and joint pains, (8.7%).”

Papaya leaf represented 20% of the suggested source of healing.

Contribution of indigenous health care givers to the herbal managament of febrile illnesses in Rivers state, South-south, Nigeria
O O Ebong, E O Ajaiyeoba, I M Ononiwu, M J Eteng, D O Akinboye, G O Gbostosho, C O Falade, O M Bolaji, O Oladepo, O S Osowole, T C Happi, O F Fawole, A T Ogundahunsi, I M Agbagwa, O Oduola, A M Oduola

West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol 21, 2005 pp 48-54

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/wajpdr/article/view/14759

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Papaya Leaves Used for Malaria; DAWN BERKELAAR

Malaria has a greater morbidity and mortality than any other disease in the world, and is the number killer of children.

PAPAYA LEAF TEA AS A MALARIA PROPHYLACTIC?
COMPILED BY DAWN BERKELAAR
Published 2002

…”Dr. David Drake wrote us about the informal observations he made when he was head of a mission hospital in Zimbabwe. In the area where Dr. Drake worked, malaria is a very serious disease. The main type of malaria there is Plasmodium falciparum. Dr. Drake wrote, “We [missionaries at the station] started using papaya tea in 1990. I left the next year, but they have continued. It started out with only a few getting involved, and gradually more have caught on to its use as the years progressed. There are about 20 in the missionary family and about the same number of African staff involved. Some continued to take their regular commercial malaria prophylactic drug, but gradually none of the above took anything else but the papaya tea. Those that are still at the hospital observed that even though that area of Zimbabwe had some of the worst malaria seasons ever, that those REGULARLY taking the papaya tea (twice a week) did not come down with malaria.”

After this publication she received validation of the effect against and use of papaya leaf against malaria from Echo missionaries from all over the world including Ecuador, Brasil, Malawi, Togo, Iwan Jawa, and Indonesia.

It was also interesting how many comments poured in about how the leaves were readily available but the missionaries were not previously informed to try papaya leaves. This is the purpose for the Julia Ruffin Project: to promote, research, and test-farm papaya leaf tea.

ECHO is a Christian non-profit organization whose vision is to bring glory to God and a blessing to mankind by using science and technology to help the poor.

A set of research below discusses lab validation of Dawn Berkelaar’s paper, but the researchers are of the opinion that the papaya leaf should be blended with another drug:

“Mature leaves of Carica papaya (paw paw) are widely used to treat malaria in Cameroon.”

The Antimalarial Potential of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in Cameroonian Folk Medicine

Vincent PK Titanji, Denis Zofou, and Moses N Ngemenya
Author information ► Copyright and License information ►

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816552/

Italian Scientists discover that the papaya leaf has anti-malarial effect after seven days in the lab

Plasmodium is a genus of Apicomplexan parasites. Infection by these organisms is known as malaria.
(Wikipedia)

Article:
Pietretti, A; Karioti, A; Sannella, A; Orsini, S; Scalone, A; Gradoni, L; Messori, L; Severini, C; Bilia, A:
Antiplasmodial in vivo activity of Carica papaya leaf decoction
Planta Medica; Issue 12, 2010

…”By analyzing the reduction of parasitemia, it was found that the papaya extracts at the two higher doses tested had low plasmodicidal activity until the seventh day but the plasmodicidal activity became markedly positive in the following days. In particular, in the D10 the reduction of parasitemia was 76.7% in the papaya 500 group and 100% in the papaya 750 group; the reduction of parasitemia by D13 was 100% for both doses. These preliminary results obtained so far in our laboratory are definitely encouraging and suggest us to plan a new series of experiments to provide further evidences and eventually confirm the antiplasmodial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts.”

Malaria, Jaundice, Diabetes, Ulcers, High Fever Treated with Papaya Leaf

The Nigerian study below looked into the ethno medicine traditions for plants local to the Port Harcourt Metropolis. Listed below is the portion on papaya leaf:

ISRN Botany
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 829424, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/829424
Research Article
Ethnobotanical Studies of Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

A. B. Nwauzoma1,2 and Magdalene S. Dappa1
1Department of Applied & Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science & Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt 500001, Nigeria
2Embrapa Agroenergia-PQEB-Final W3 Norte, Asa Norte, 7077091 Brasilia, DF, Brazil
Received 25 April 2013; Accepted 26 May 2013
Academic Editors: F. A. Culianez-Macia, G. T. Maatooq, and T. L. Weir

Malaria Fever, Diabetes, Stomach Ulcer, and Convulsion

The leaves of Papaya are squeezed into one liter of water and a glassful is taken 3 times daily for 7 days to serve as a good treatment for malaria fever and jaundice. Similarly, the green leaves are squeezed into 1 liter of water; one glassful is taken three times daily to treat diabetes and constipation. For intestinal ulcer, unripe Papaya fruit is cut into pieces and the peel and seeds are removed and soaked in five liters of water for 4 days. It is sieved and 1/2 glass is taken 3 times daily for two weeks. The white milky sap of unripe Papaya contains a high percentage of papain which is used for chronic wounds or ulcers. The dry fallen Papaya leaves are washed and ground into powder. Two tablespoonfuls of the ground powder are added into 1/2 glass of palm kernel oil, stirred properly, and rubbed over the body to arrest high fever and convulsion.

http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/botany/2013/829424/

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Papaya Leaf an Alternative to quinine for Malaria

A credible journal, the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, published this study on the effect of papaya leaf tea on malaria:

Antimalarial activity of Carica papaya (Family: Caricaceae) leaf extract against Plasmodium falciparum
K. Kovendan1*, K. Murugan1, C. Panneerselvam1, N. Aarthi1, P. Mahesh Kumar1, J. Subramaniam1, D. Amerasan1, K. Kalimuthu1, S. Vincent2
1Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India 2P.G. Research & Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600 034, Tamil Nadu, India

“…In conclusion the overall, increasing the global spread of multi-drug resistant malaria parasite showed that there is a need for new chemotherapeutic agents to combat malaria. In the present study, to aiming the search of new anti-malarial drugs, in vitro anti-plasmodial activities of the plants C. papaya. Development of new active and safe drugs for the community is therefore an urgent need. Towards this goal, research into new antimalarial drugs from natural products, traditional healers use parts of many plants for the treatment of several pathologies, including malaria, and have done so for centuries. The use of plants can take into account their preservation because inadequate use of these plants could lead in terms to ecological disruption. These medicinal plants and their survival could be directly linked to our own behavior. These results confirm that extracts from leaves of these plants which displayed good activities against P. falciparum are suitable for their traditional use in the treatment of malaria.”

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/233778301_Antimalarial_activity_of_Carica_papaya_(Family_Caricaceae)_leaf_extract_against_Plasmodium_falciparum/file/d912f50b6534728880.pdf

Nigerian Scientists Prove Papaya Leaf as a Malaria Prophylactic

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Scientists Uhegbu, F. O., Elekwa, I., Ukoha, C. At Abia State University in Nigeria showed effect of papaya leaf “tea” on Malaria in the lab. Papaya leaf was compared to the effect of the malaria drug Maloxine.

Malaria has been documented as the number one killer of children in the world.

Reference their study:
English Title: Comparative efficacy of crude aqueous extract of Mangiferea indica, Carica papaya and sulphadoxine pyrimethamine on mice infested with malaria parasite in vivo. Personal Authors: Uhegbu, F. O., Elekwa, I., Ukoha, C.
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological and Physical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.
Document Title: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2005 (Vol. 11) (No. 3) 399-401
Abstract:
The comparative efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Maloxine) and leaf extracts of Mangifera indica (mango) and Carica papaya (paw-paw) was investigated in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Maloxine had the highest efficacy, reducing the parasite count from an average count of 9.4?0.04 to 1.4?0.05 after six days of treatment. The paw-paw leaf extract reduced the malaria parasite count from an average of 9.2?0.06 to 2.6?0.06; while the mango leaf extract showed an average reduction from 9.8?0.01 to 3.2?0.03 after six days of treatment. However, a combination of the two leaf extracts (1:1) exhibited a higher antimalaria efficacy than the separate leaf extracts, reducing the parasite count from 9.4?0.031 to 2.0?0.15. The public health implications of these findings are discussed.
Publisher: Bachudo Science Co. Ltd.