Scientists have discovered that papaya leaf tea stimulates macrophages, the “big eaters” in your body. The function of macrophages is one key to battling auto-immune disease. The reason is that macrophages clean up waste in your body including poisons, pathogens, and, of course, cancer cells.
In photo above the macrophage is extending its arms to engulf two pathogens.
A very good description of the effect that macrophages have on auto-immune disease was published in Science Daily (below):
American Physiological Society (2010, August 27).
Macrophages: The ‘defense’ cells that help throughout the body. –ScienceDaily. Retrieved
Aug. 27, 2010 — The term “macrophage” conjures images of a hungry white blood cell gobbling invading bacteria. However, macrophages do much more than that: Not only do they act as antimicrobial warriors, they also play critical roles in immune regulation and wound-healing. They can respond to a variety of cellular signals and change their physiology in response to local cues.
“There has been a huge outpouring of research about host defense that has overshadowed the many diverse activities that these cells do all the time,” said Dr. Mosser. “We’d like to dispel the narrow notion that most people have that macrophages’ only role is defense, and expand it to include their role in homeostasis.”
Macrophages exist in nearly all tissues and are produced when white blood cells called monocytes leave the blood and differentiate in a tissue-specific manner. The type of macrophage that results from monocyte differentiation depends on the type(s) of cytokines that these cells encounter. Cytokines are proteins produced by immune cells that can influence cell behavior and affect interactions between cells. For example, macrophages that battle microbial invaders arise in response to interferon-γ, a cytokine that is produced during a cellular immune response involving helper T-cells and the factors they produce. These macrophages are considered to be “classically activated.”
However, when monocytes differentiate in response to stimuli such as prostaglandins or glucocorticoids, the resulting macrophages will assume a “regulatory” phenotype. Alternately, wound-healing macrophages arise when monocytes differentiate in response to interleukin-4, a cytokine which is released during tissue injury…
Immune-regulating macrophages produce high levels of the cytokine interleukin-10, which helps suppress the body’s immune response. Suppressing an immune response may seem counter-intuitive, but in the later stages of immunity it comes in handy because it limits inflammation.
According to Dr. Mosser, immune-regulating macrophages may hold the key to developing treatments for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The focus of new research is on reprogramming the macrophages to assume a regulatory phenotype and prevent autoimmunity, he said.
There is broad potential for exploiting different stages of macrophage activation, Dr. Mosser added. “It might be possible to manipulate macrophages to make better vaccines, prevent immunosuppression, or develop novel therapeutics that promote anti-inflammatory immune responses.”